Select from the following:
A timeline of events in New York State from 1775 to 1783.
A "virtual tour" of American Revolution Historical Sites throughout the Hudson River Valley; includes photos and contact information for each site.
A timeline of events in New York State from 1774 to 1783.
A short video of the re-enactment at the Grand Encampment at Fort Ticonderoga, July 2000.
A complete listing of web sites, books, articles, and essays on the Colonial and Revolutionary Eras in the Hudson River Valley; includes maps, military and civilian history, profiles, and county by county listings.
This site contains extensive bibliographies organized around general and specific themes, states, theaters of operation, participants, Naval aspects, and more.
A resource offered by Ancestry.com for researching genealogy.
Chaining the Hudson, is based on the award-winning book by Lincoln Diamant, published by Citadel Press in 1994. It is the story of the Hudson River Valley highlands from 1775 to 1780 and of the tens of thousands of liberty-loving Americans who with Frenchmen, Poles, and other European volunteers fought the British, Germans and their local loyalist sympathizers on the Hudson's surface and along its banks.
Fort Decker has witnessed much history since it was built around 1760 in what was then a frontier area. The old stone house sits on a broad plain, several hundred yards from the Delaware River to the west and at the foot of the edge of the Appalachian plateau on the east. Over the years, it has served as a tavern, fort & trading post, and a hotel for travelers on the D&H as well as a private residence.
The lesson is based on the National Historic Landmark documentation file, "Bennington Battlefield," and on Philip Lord, Jr.'s War over Walloomscoick: Land Use and Settlement Patterns on the Bennington Battlefield--1777. The lesson could be used in American history, social studies, and geography courses in units on the Revolutionary War.
In 1776, during the American Revolution, a Connecticut Yankee by the name of David Bushnell had a daring idea to break the British blockade of New York harbor: he would build a one-man submarine and somehow attach a bomb to the underside of the British ships and blow them up. Handshouse Studio directed and coordinated the making of the replica of Bushnell's Turtle in collaboration with Massachusetts College of Art and the United States Naval Academy.
With over a thousand links and extensive original content, this site features works by some of the world's foremost historians on topics such as Black soldiers of the Revolution, Native American Indians in the Revolution, and much more hard-to-find information.
Almost two million women have served in the U.S. military and thousands more with the military in other capacities. This website describes the various roles women have taken in the military and how these roles have changed over time.
This site explains the significance of the town of Kingston during the Revolutionary War.
Southern Campaigns of the American Revolution is dedicated to the study of the period of the War for American Independence in the Southern Department from 1760 to 1789. They facilitate the exchange of information on the Southern Campaigns, Revolutionary War sites, their location, preservation, historic signage, interpretation, artifacts, and archaeology as well as the personalities, military tactics, units, logistics, strategy, and the political leadership. They highlight professionals and amateurs actively engaged in Revolutionary War research, preservation, and interpretation to encourage an active exchange of information.
This is a link to the West Point Museum. It provides a layout of what is located on each floor of the museum.
This link provides great information about the West Point Chain. This is one of the most thorough articles written regarding the chain.
The Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route
During 1781-82, French Comte Rochambeau marched his forces from Providence, Rhode Island to Yorktown, Virginia. These links discuss and explore the importance of this campaign and trace its route through New England, New York, and the Mid-Atlantic States.
The National Park Service is conducting the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route Study as authorized by Congress through the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Heritage Act of 2000 (PL106-473). The purpose of the study is to determine if the route is eligible to become a National Historic Trail. The study will also identify alternative management options to preserve and interpret this important part of our heritage. The study will be completed in Fall 2004, in time to inform plans to commemorate the route's 225th anniversary.
We're a group of individuals dedicated to the living history reenactment of 18th century lifestyles of the citizen soldiers and other residents of the Hudson Valley region of New York State. We concentrate on the events of and leading up to the War of the Revolution, particularly those which took place in the Hudson and Mohawk River Valleys. Our membership includes not only men-at-arms, but also civilians, women and children, who through their 18th-century personalities research, explore and interpret life in the time of the Revolution.
The Third Ulster County Militia included recruits from Marbletown, Rochester, and New Paltz. Today, the Third Ulster sets up one-day encampments in the mid and lower-Hudson River Valley and participates in larger reenactment events throughout the Northeast. Their members portray Colonial, English, and French Canadian figures and demonstrate daily life in the Revolutionary era from those vantage points.
The Brigade is a non-profit living history association dedicated to recreating the life and times of the common soldier of the American War for Independence (1775-1783). Members represent elements of all the armies then involved: Continental, Militia, British, Loyalist, German, French, Spanish, and Native American forces plus civilian men, women and children. Since 1962, the Brigade has been recreating a broad spectrum of the 18th Century. Its activities include military encampments, tactical exercises, firelock shooting competitions, craft demonstrations and social activities. The Brigade also conducts annual schools and educational seminars featuring experts from several fields of 18th Century study.
The foundation is led by Hendrick Hudson Educators Association retiree Joe Ryan. Living History gets teachers beyond the "four walls of the classroom and two covers of a book" by immersing them in a historical setting, explained Ryan. Participants wear period clothing and live as 18th century soldiers and women - marching, firing muskets, and preparing a full meal. Educators can earn either inservice credit for the program through their local teacher center, or graduate credit through the College of New Rochelle.
This link focuses on the Watervliet Arsenal. It focuses not only on the history of the facility, but also on its current function.
Select from the following:General
"The City of Newburgh abounds with block after block of historic architecture. Established in 1973, the East End Historic District contains over 4000 buildings of historic interest."
"The National Trust for Historic Preservation is a privately funded non-profit organization that provides leadership, education and advocacy to save America's diverse historic places and revitalize our communities."
"The official website of the Colonial Albany Social History Project. It is intended to introduce everyone to the people of colonial Albany and their world."
"Huguenot Street Historic District, a National Historic Landmark, was created to preserve the oldest continuously inhabited street in America with its original houses, a wonderful collection exhibiting Dutch vernacular architecture and furnishings."
"The New York State Archives was established in 1971 and opened its doors to the public in 1978. It is a program of the State Education Department, with its main facility located in the Cultural Education Center on Madison Avenue in Albany. There, it cares for and provides access to more than 130 million documents that tell the story of New York from the seventeenth century to the present."
Historic Hudson River's links to historic restorations, libraries, and museums.
Locust Grove has seen three major phases of development. Samuel Morse acquired a Georgian house, built in 1830 by John and Isabella Montgomery, as part of the estate he purchased in 1847. Central to his plan for improving the estate, Morse consulted his friend, the well known architect Alexander Jackson Davis, and together they created a villa in the popular Tuscan style. To the original home, Morse and Davis added two wings to the north and south, creating an octagon, as well as the porte-cochère and billiards room to the East, and the four-story tower structure facing west toward the river. This tower established a powerful focal point for the landscape that Morse was already planning.
Americans were commanded when seeking guidance about architecture and design during the mid-19th century. Professional advisors used the illustrated book as a way to help Americans navigate a period of political and cultural change. For the first time, design encyclopedias, pattern books, architectural advice books, art instruction manuals, and international exposition catalogs opened the door to a world where architecture, applied art, and ideas met. Such offerings can be viewed as examples of graphic approach and style and, on a larger scale, as codifiers of applied art and domestic design. Professionals & amateurs, artists & artisans, and builders & homeowners turned to these publications to learn about both technique and aesthetics.
"More than 300 years of upper Hudson River Valley history are reflected in the cluster of architecturally significant buildings which comprise the Bronck Museum."
HVVA publishes a regular newsletter of their research and findings throughout the Hudson River Valley. While they have a strong interest in Dutch barns, "vernacular" architecture includes much more than barns, and they include a small sampling of everything.Great Architects
"Mr. Gehry has built an architectural career that has spanned four decades and produced public and private buildings in America, Europe and Asia." Including the Bard College Center for Performing arts in Annandale-on-Hudson, New York.
"During the 1840s and 1850s, Davis was America's leading architect of country houses in a variety of picturesque styles, the most popular among them being Gothic Revival and Italianate."
"Downing developed his view that country residences should fit into the surrounding landscape and blend with its natural habitat. He also believed that architecture should be functional and that designs for residences should be both beautiful and functional."
"Richard Morris Hunt (1828-1895) was an architect who is widely credited as the one of the fathers of American architecture."
"McKim, Mead, and White was formed in 1878 when Charles Follen McKim (1847-1909) formed a partnership with William Rutherford Mead (1846-1928) and William B. Bigelow. Bigelow retired the following year when Stanford White (1853-1906) joined the firm and the firm's name was established"
"He is widely recognized as America's premier landscape architect and park-maker. His accomplishments in the field of park design, conservation, town planning, and landscape architecture have national and international significance."
"A leader of multiple architectural movements in the 19th-century United States, James Renwick, Jr. elevated contemporary regard for the profession through his designs for high-profile buildings such as the Smithsonian "Castle" in Washington and St. Patrick's Cathedral in New York."
"During his brief but productive career of 21 years Henry Hobson Richardson had perfected building solutions and design formulas for a wide range of building types, many of which were new to his age: small town and large-scale libraries, campus buildings, train stations, cathedrals, courthouses, city halls, state capitals, the commercial block, and the suburban home."
"In his designs, Rudolph synthesizes the Modernist ideas of Le Corbusier, Frank Lloyd Wright, and Louis I. Kahn. He uses sweeping monolithic forms and intricate interior spaces to create a powerful sculptural quality."
"In 1839 he was engaged to rebuild Trinity Church, New York City. Moving to New York, he established an office there. The new Trinity Church (1846) was carefully modeled on English examples and inaugurated a new phase in the Gothic revival."
Throughout the course of his career "Vaux designed several structures for The Parade (now Martin Luther King, Jr. Park), The Park (Now Delaware Park), and The Front (now Front Park." He also collaborated with Frederick Law Olmstead in the design of Central Park.
Though not usually associated with the Hudson River Valley, Wright designed three houses and many site plans for the Usonia Community in Westchester County, a cooperative community that was otherwise designed and built by his students David Henkin and Aaron Resnick.
"At the apex of his career, Wright left New York City and moved his base of operations to Garrison. It was here that he created a unique home and designed landscape."Great Estates
"Staatsburgh, is a New York State Historic Site located within the boundaries of Mills-Norrie State Park. It is an elegant example of the great estates built by America's financial and industrial leaders during the Gilded Age. In 1895, Mr. and Mrs. Mills commissioned the prestigious New York City architectural firm of McKim, Mead and White to remodel and enlarge their Staatsburg home. After completion in 1896, the house was transformed into a Beaux-Arts mansion of 65 rooms and 14 bathrooms. Its exterior was embellished with balustrades, pilasters, floral swags, and a massive portico. The rooms were furnished with elaborately carved and gilded furniture, fine oriental rugs, silk fabrics, and a collection of art objects from Europe, ancient Greece, and the Far East."
"This collections includes preliminary drawing, sketches, and architectural plans by Samuel F. B. Morse and his architect Alexander Jackson Davis for the renovation and expansion of the Locust Grove mansion in 1851."
Select from the following:Hudson River School of Painting
ArtLex, art dictionary site, listing on the Hudson River School and associated web-links.
This page of the Albany Institute of History and Art site contains a brief summary and an index of Hudson River School paintings in their collection.
Hudson River School: American Art, 1820-1870.
Index of Hudson River School Painters listed by the Desmond Fish Library, includes images and biographical text.
A related page on a site developed by Dr. Eugene C. Hargrove, Professor of Environmental Philosophy, North Texas University, called "Why We Think Nature Is Beautiful." This site presents another discussion of the Hudson River School and its relation to the environment.
The I Love New York website listing of Hudson River School Art Collection Locations and Descriptions.
This Newington-Cropsey Foundation website is intended to provide information about the Foundation, the artist Jasper Cropsey, and the Hudson River School of Art.
"Project VIEW, a Federal Technology Innovation Challenge Grant, is led by the Schenectady City School District. This innovative program is designed to open the classroom door so that students and teachers can engage in an array of boundless learning opportunities." Attached are educational pages on the Hudson River School and the Native American Landscape.
"The Forges & Manor of Ringwood is an historic center, sacred ground to the Native Americans and a site of important American developments, both industrial and social, during the Colonial, Federal, and Victorian periods." Located in the Hudson Highlands in Northern New Jersey, this site also has a collection of Hudson River School paintings.
"Frederic Church, one of the premier American landscape painters, will forever be associated with the Hudson River Valley, where he painted and made his home. Immensely popular in the mid-19th century, his paintings are characterized by a calmness and sense of hope."
"In 1825, Cole discovered the haunting beauty of the Catskill wilderness. His exhibition of small paintings of Catskill landscapes came to the attention of prominent figures on the New York City art scene"
"An active member of the New York art community, Durand was instrumental in organizing the New-York Drawing Association in 1825 (later the National Academy of Design, which he served as president from 1845 to 1861"
"The first historian of the American stage, William Dunlap was a passionate lover of the arts, a gifted painter, a tireless chronicler of his day and a writer of considerable charm."
"Gifford's earliest works show the combined influence of Thomas Cole's style and his own nature studies."
Cropsey mostly painted landscapes, copied from engravings of Claude Lorrain and other landscape artists.Hudson River School Estates
"The mission of the Olana Partnership is to advocate for and support the preservation of Olana and its integral view shed, to sponsor educational programs, and to foster scholarly educational research on the artist and his property." Includes information, images, and directions to Frederic Church's estate, Olana
"Cedar Grove, the home of Thomas Cole, is one of a very limited number of National Historic Landmarks having extraordinary significance in the cultural development of the United States. It was here that Thomas Cole established a tradition of native American landscape painting which continues to grow in importance and has come to be identified as the Hudson River School of Art."Museums
"The principle aim of the Center's exhibition program is to encourage experimental approaches to the presentation of the contemporary visual arts, especially approaches that reflect the center's commitment to the multidisciplinary study of art and culture."
Dia:Beacon is the latest project from Dia Art Foundation, "one of the world's preeminent contemporary art institutions is opening a new museum to house its renowned but rarely seen permanent collection, comprising major works of art from the 1960s to the present. Dia:Beacon will occupy a nearly 300,000-square-foot historic printing factory."
"The Frances Lehman Loeb Art Center, at Vassar College in Poughkeepsie, has a permanent collection featuring works by Pieter Bruegel the Younger, Frederic Church, Paul Cézanne, Georgia O'Keeffe, Francis Bacon, and many others," as well as ongoing exhibits of collections on loan.
Mass MoCA is a museum of multidisciplinary contemporary art located in a 19th century mill complex in the Berkshires. The facility is in the northwestern edge of Massachusetts in North Adams and contains a gallery/museum space as well as multiple performance areas that feature and ongoing program of dance, theater, cinema, and music.
"The Samuel Dorsky Museum of Art is dedicated to collecting, researching, interpreting, and exhibiting works of art from diverse cultures. The permanent collection spans a period of almost 4,000 years. Areas of specialization include 20th century prints and paintings, Asian art, Pre-Columbian art and artifacts, decorative arts (metals), and photographs. The Museum has a special commitment to collecting important works of art created by artists that have lived and worked in the Hudson Valley and Catskill regions." The Museum is located on the SUNY New Paltz campus.
"The Norman Rockwell Museum houses the world's largest collection of his work, including 574 original paintings and drawings. Rockwell's Stockbridge studio is open to the public from May through October, and features original art materials, his library, furnishings, and personal items. The Museum also houses the Norman Rockwell Archives, including working photographs, letters, personal calendars, fan mail, and business documents."
"Storm King Art Center is a museum that celebrates the relationship between sculpture and nature. Five hundred acres of landscaped lawns, fields and woodlands provide the site for postwar sculptures by internationally renowned artists. The grounds are surrounded by the undulating profiles of the Hudson Highlands, a dramatic panorama integral to the viewing experience. The sculptures are affected by changes in light and weather, so no two visits are the same."
The New York State Museum is a major research and educational institution. It is dedicated to promoting inquiry and advancing knowledge in the fields of geology, biology, anthropology, and history, through the investigation of material evidence germane to New York State's past, present and future. The Museum shares this knowledge through exhibits and other means with wide and diverse audiences. It encourages these audiences to take delight in learning by participating in the discovery process central to its work.Organizations
"The Dutchess County Arts Council is a private, nonprofit arts service organization to promote and coordinate cultural activity and development in Dutchess County."
"The Greene County Council on the Arts, GCCA, [seeks] to broaden and enrich the quality of life in Greene County by developing and strengthening all the arts and by fostering cultural and arts related activities in Greene County." This site includes a list of resources, links, and a calendar of events.
"As a county-wide arts service agency, The Putnam Arts Council extends its programming to reach constituents where they live and work, and to provide support for the creative development of artists, students, and cultural organizations."
"The Arts Council of Rockland promotes and encourages the arts [and] strives to create a climate in which creative expression flourishes and is experienced by all and facilitates & coordinates programs, support services, publications and forums for the entire community in the interest of enhancing the cultural life in Rockland County."
The Ulster County Arts Council has merged with the Dutchess County Arts Council.
The Westchester Arts serves as an arts organization. "Artists and audiences numbering over one million. The Council provides a wide variety of programs and services to the community designed to develop audiences for the arts, strengthen the county's cultural institutions and enrich the quality of life for all Westchester residents."
HVCCA is located in the heart of Peekskill and "is dedicated to the development and presentation of new art, exhibits and interdisciplinary programs that enrich our understanding of contemporary art, its contexts, and its relationship to social issues."
This non-profit organization's mission is to "celebrate and contribute to the local, cultural, and natural histories of the Hudson Valley."Miscellaneous
Bear Systems offers the following list of Mid-Hudson galleries.
The Chronogram offers the following list of galleries for the region.
The Hudson Valley Magazine offers the following gallery guide.
"Art Along the Hudson - 4 Cities 4 Saturdays is a year-round program, celebrating all aspects of the arts - from gallery and museum exhibits to music, dance, theatre and poetry."
This website provides a links to a number of local theaters, opera houses, and cultural centers.
Peppered with recognizable locations along the river and the blog’s colorful history notes, the story calls out to readers from Tarrytown, Dobbs Ferry, Peekskill, Rhinebeck, Poughkeepsie, and elsewhere from Manhattan to Albany—some of whom leave comments furthering the historical research. “Sailor Twain” is, at least in part, a love-letter to the Hudson, and it argues convincingly for its place as one of the most romantic rivers in the world.
Select from the following:Historic Sites & Field Trips
Samuel Finley Breese Morse was born on April 27, 1791, in Charlestown, just outside of Boston, Massachusetts. He was the son of Jedidiah Morse, a pastor who was as well known for his geography as Noah Webster, a friend of the family, was known for his dictionaries.
"The Huguenot Historical Society invites you to journey back in time by exploring the historic house museums of Huguenot Street and the nearby Locust Lawn mansion and farm complex. While the original portion of many of the homes date to the 1680s, continuous family ownership through the centuries resulted in modifications to meet changing needs, offering the visitor a unique chance to experience the history of a Hudson Valley village through the ages. So come and experience three hundred years of history!"
Educational Resources on FDR and Eleanor Roosevelt including biographies, online photos and exhibits, and preparation material for a site visit.
This website provides professional materials and information for educators including Field Trip suggestions, cultural programs, and information about classroom-based science programs.Web Based Resources
Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) uses properties listed in the National Park Service's National Register of Historic Places to enliven history, social studies, geography, civics, and other subjects. TwHP has created a variety of products and activities that help teachers bring historic places into the classroom.
The lesson is based on the National Historic Landmark documentation file, "Bennington Battlefield," and on Philip Lord, Jr.'s War over Walloomscoick: Land Use and Settlement Patterns on the Bennington Battlefield--1777. The lesson could be used in American history, social studies, and geography courses in units on the Revolutionary War.
This lesson is based on the National Register of Historic Places registration files "Oriskany Battlefield" and "Fort Stanwix", accounts of people who lived during this period, and other source materials. The lesson could be used in U.S. history, social studies, and geography courses in units on the Revolutionary War and American Indian history. It also could be used in courses on conflict resolution, cultural diversity, and art.
This lesson is based on the National Register of Historic Places registration file "Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site" and other source materials. The lesson could be used in American history courses in units on efforts to achieve world peace during the Cold War in the 1950s, or on human rights and civil rights issues. Students will learn about Eleanor Roosevelt's contributions as a humanitarian.
This lesson is based on the National Register of Historic Places registration file "Lindenwald" and other sources related to Van Buren. This lesson complements classroom study of early 19th-century politics by tracing the life of Martin Van Buren and examining his retirement home. It could be used in U.S. history courses and in civics or government classes. Students will gain a deeper understanding of the man who played an important role in the Jacksonian Era.
This lesson is based on materials from the archives at Saratoga National Historical Park. This lesson could be used in American history, social studies, and geography courses in units on the American Revolution or New York State history.
This lesson is based on the National Register of Historic Places registration file for the "Home of Franklin Delano Roosevelt National Historic Site" and other source material. This lesson could be used in U.S. history, social studies, and geography courses in units on FDR's presidency, the Great Depression, the New Deal, and World War II.
This lesson is based on the National Register of Historic Places registration file for the "Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site" and other source materials. The lesson could be used in U.S. history, social studies, and geography courses in units on the Gilded Age or America's industrial and economic growth. Vanderbilt Mansion will help students understand the possibilities for wealth in an age before income taxes and government regulation of business and industry.
Index page for millions of primary documents. Collections include The Learning Page, American Memory, Today in History, I Hear America Singing, and Community Roots. Everything from Colonial to Contemporary culture.
Select from the following:
Putnam CountyPutnam County
"Boscobel is an elegant, neo-classical mansion sited high above the Hudson River in the Hudson Highlands about fifty miles north of New York City."Westchester County
"The Cropsey Homestead, also known as Ever Rest, was built in 1835 and purchased by Jasper F. Cropsey in 1885. Cropsey extended Ever Rest by adding an artist's studio to it in 1885"
"Home to four generations of the Rockefeller family, Kykuit commands a breathtaking view of the Hudson River and occupies a landscape of extensive stone terraces, formal gardens, and glorious fountains."
"Lyndhurst was designed by Alexander Jackson Davis (1803-1892) in the Gothic Revival style"on 67 acres.
"Philipsburg Manor (was) once the headquarters of an enormous Hudson Valley manor, the site vividly interprets aspects of the history of colonial New York and the system of racially-based slavery which helped keep the estate running in the 18th century."
"Sunnyside is the meticulously restored and charmingly picturesque home of renowned author Washington Irving. This important house and landscape enjoys a quiet and unspoiled riverside setting in Tarrytown, New York."
"Van Cortlandt Manor, situated on the banks of the Croton River in Croton-on-Hudson, New York, is a working estate and elegant country house that brings the new nation period vividly to life."Orange County
"The Crawford House is the neo-classical 1830's residence of David Crawford, a civic leader and maritime entrepreneur, who contributed greatly to the growth of (Newburgh) business in the first half of the 19th century. The Crawford House is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, serves as a community resource center, and is open to the public on a regular basis."Dutchess County
Samuel F.B. Morse bought Locust Grove in 1847, and renovated the Georgian house, with Alexander Jackson Davis, into a Tuscan Villa that featured a new north and south wing, four-story tower facing the Hudson, and a porte-cochere. The Youngs, a society family of Poughkeepsie, purchased the estate in 1901 and maintained much of the architecture and grounds as Morse left them, while contributing a sense of early 20th century society life to the site.
"Mills Mansion is an elegant example of the great estates built by America's financial and industrial leaders during the Gilded Age."
"Montgomery Place is best known as an architectural landmark designed by Alexander Jackson Davis and a landscape influenced by the great Andrew Jackson Downing."
Springside, the former home of Matthew Vassar, best known for founding of Vassar College in 1861, was designed by Andrew Jackson Downing.
Wilderstein, in Rhinecliff, is a three-story Queen Anne style country house featuring a 5 story circular tower, interior design by Joseph Burr Tifffany, and landscaping by Calvert Vaux.
Frederick Vanderbilt's Mansion in Hyde Park, built between 1895 and 1898, was designed by Charles Follen McKim of the firm McKim, Mead, and White. The grounds are extensively landscaped with a wide variety of trees and gardens.
The National Park Service operates the Franklin D. Roosevelt home, Springwood, and library, as well as Eleanor Roosevelt's property, VallKill in Hyde Park.
"Mount Gulian is the Verplanck family homestead, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the home was originally built by Gulian Verplanck, a prominent Dutch merchant, between 1730 and 1740.Columbia County
"Clermont was the Hudson River seat of the politically and socially prominent Livingston family of New York for more than 230 years. Seven successive generations of the family left their imprint on the architecture, room interiors, and landscape at Clermont."
Widely regarded as his last great work, Frederich Church began working with Calvert Vaux to design Olana along the lines of a Moorish Villa in 1870 and finished the exterior by 1872. The studio was added in 1891, and enjoys a view of the Hudson River valley and the Catskills to the west.Rensselaer County
Crailo State Historic Site is a museum of the Dutch in the upper Hudson Valley.Albany County
"Built as a farmhouse on 900 acres in the same year the United States Constitution was drafted, Cherry Hill today sits on the crest of a five-acre wooded hill overlooking the Hudson River in the South End of Albany, New York. This 18th-century Georgian-style house was the heart and home of a five-generation Albany Family."
"Completed in 1763 and built in the elegant Georgian style, Schuyler's mansion evoked the praise of many travelers who described it in their journals. George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, and Benedict Arnold were among Schuyler's visitors Schuyler Mansion, on its small urban plot, is all that remains of an estate that once embraced elaborate gardens, orchards, fields, and numerous farm buildings."Organizations
Historic Hudson Valley's mission is to preserve the culture, landscape and history of the Hudson River Valley, and to present this heritage to the public through educational outreach, daily programming at historic properties, and special events.
Hudson River Heritage (HRH) is a nonprofit membership organization committed to preserving the unique character of the Mid-Hudson Valley's historic architecture, rural landscapes and scenic view sheds through advocacy and education.Greene County
"Cedar Grove, the home of Thomas Cole, is one of a very limited number of National Historic Landmarks having extraordinary significance in the cultural development of the United States... it was here...that Thomas Cole established a tradition of native American landscape painting which continues to grow in importance and has come to be identified as the Hudson River School of Art."
Resources on the Quadricentennial CommemorationResources on the Quadricentennial Commemoration Resources on Henry Hudson Resources on Robert Fulton Resources on Samual De Champlain
Resources on Henry Hudson
Resources on Robert Fulton
Resources on Samual De Champlain
Dedicated to the history of Lake Champlain and Lake George, highlighting the numerous historic sites leading up and down both waterways. Contains an extract of Samuel de Champlain's journal, describing his discovery of his namesake lake. Also maintains a rather extensive bibliography of print resources.
Covers two location s on Lake Champlain - the museum at Basin Harbor and the Burlington Shipyard. Between them, there are over a dozen exhibits covering the "maritime history and nautical archaeology of the Champlain Valley through hands-on exhibits, videos and audio displays, and historical artifacts ". The Museum also maintains the Philadelphia II, a replica of a 1776 gunboat, and the Louis McLure, a replica 1862 canal schooner.
Located at Middlebury College in Vermont, the Lake Champlain Research Consortium focuses on the ecological story of America's sixth largest lake. The website provides links to student research, photos of field trips, and summaries of regularly held workshops and conferences.
Select from the following:
Festivals and Events
Hudson Valley Authors
Hudson Valley Poets
The Desmond Fish Library has compiled a list of many Hudson Valley Authors with biographical information.
On-line library and portal listing resources on American Literature from Colonial periods to contemporary writings.Centers/Workshops/Roundtables
"The Hudson Valley Writers' Center, Inc. is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1988 with a mission to promote the appreciation of literary excellence and to stimulate and nurture the creation of literary works in all sectors of the population."
"The Hudson Valley Writers Guild: Our mission is to foster an active community of writers and readers by encouraging the development of local authors and providing opportunities for them to share their talents with local audiences."
"The Writers Institute is one of America's premiere sites for celebrating the art of the written word. ... providing the broadest possible educational base for students of writing, access to some of our greatest living authors for serious readers of literature, enthusiastic audiences in excellent venues for visiting writers and important cultural initiatives for the general public."
A journal of student writing, it is a collection of essays written for College Writing II classes at Marist College each academic year. Each teacher of College Writing II is asked to submit an outstanding essay from his/her class. Two editors then reviewed the essays, and works are chosen from each semester to be included. The essays themselves cover a wide range of topics and views.Festivals and Events
Provides information about current and upcoming events in the Woodstock area.
"The Chronogram is a Mid-Hudson magazine of events and ideas, publishing material that nourishes the creative life of our region and in the world, and to demonstrate a paradigm of that creativity in action" and keeps a calendar of literary and other events.
This calendar contains links to various poetry readings and events occurring throughout the Hudson Valley.Journals
"The Museum of American Poetics is a unique amalgamate of poets, students, teachers, scholars, editors, publishers, literary centers, and web designers."Publishing Houses
"Black Dome Press specializes in high quality books on the history, art, culture, folklore and folk art of upstate New York -- the Hudson Valley, Catskill Mountains, Shawangunks, Albany Capital Region and Saratoga -- the lands of Rip Van Winkle, John Burroughs, Thomas Cole & the Hudson River School of landscape painting."
Hope Farm Press claims to be "simply the largest selection of New York State current and colonial history, Genealogy, Transportation, Native American, Railroads, Canals, Steamboats, Folklore, Nature and regional interest books - Adirondacks, Catskills, Hudson River Valley, Mohawk River Valley, Finger Lakes, Central and Western New York - for sale anywhere."
"McPherson & Company is an independent literary and arts publishing company operated out of Kingston, New York, and specializes in four areas: contemporary fiction, great "lost" literary works from earlier in the century, non-fiction books dealing with contemporary art, film, aesthetics, and related cultural issues, and, finally, translations of a few distinguished authors of 20th century Italian fiction."
"Purple Mountain Press and Harbor Hill specialize in books about Westchester County, the Adirondacks, and the Mohawk and Champlain Valleys as well as the Catskills and the Hudson Valley. Together the presses have issued more than 150 titles about New York State in the fields of history, natural history, folklore, travel, outdoor sports, and the arts."
"The SUNY Press publishes scholarly and trade books in support of the State University of New York's commitments to teaching, research, and public service. With an editorial board made up of SUNY faculty from throughout the state, SUNY Press has a large catalog, featuring authors from around the world."
Station Hill Press is an "independent book publisher of innovative works offering human alternatives in a broad range of areas, with special interest in literature (contemporary poetry, fiction, non-fiction, and thought), non-Western disciplines, alternative health (including Oriental Medicine), mind/body therapies, spiritual possibilities (Tibetan Buddhism, Dzogchen, etc.), cooking (e.g., organic, lactose-free), etc."Hudson Valley Authors
T. Coraghessan Boyle may be best known as the author of The Road to Wellsville, but another work, World's End, " explores the history of the region in which I was born and raised, the area near Peekskill, New York, in Northern Westchester County on the east shore of the Hudson River."
John Burroughs was the east-coast naturalist of the Catskills on par with the legendary John Muir of California. This is a site maintained by the John Burroughs Association that includes a short biography, a bird index, and information on the John Boroughs Sanctuary in West Park, NY. http://www.johnburroughs.org/ The Catskill Archive's page on John Burroughs contains biographical information as well as articles and selected writings. http://www.catskillarchive.com/jb/jb.htm
"The James Fenimore Cooper Society is dedicated to promoting the study of the life and works of James Fenimore Cooper (1789-1851), encouraging the enjoyment of his 32 novels, and appreciation of his ideas, and providing useful information to students, scholars, and readers."
Biography and recommended readings of James Fenimore Cooper
This site contains background information on Washington Irving, author of Deitrich Knickerbocker's History of New York, provided by Historic Hudson Valley from Sunnyside Cottage - Irving's Hudson Valley Villa.
Herman Melville is another of the authors associated with the Hudson River Valley, although he lived just northeast of the Valley itself, in the Berkshire Mountains. "Arrowhead is now a house museum interpreting the life of the Melville family in the Berkshires. It is owned and operated by the Berkshire County Historical Society, a non-profit corporation."
History of the young writer's time at the United States Military Academy at West Point.
"In her long career, which stretched over forty years and included the publication of more than forty books, Edith Wharton (1862-1937) portrayed a fascinating segment of the American experience." This is the online version of the National Portrait Gallery's exhibition: Edith Wharton's World: Portraits of People and Places. http://www.npg.si.edu/exh/wharton/ "The Edith Wharton Society offers Wharton scholars and other interested persons an opportunity to share in the study and appreciation of the life and works of this author. Through annual meetings, sessions, special conferences, and its journal, The Edith Wharton Review, the Society provides a forum for Wharton studies." http://guweb2.gonzaga.edu/faculty/campbell/wharton/ "Edith Wharton Restoration, Inc. (EWR) was founded in 1980 to preserve and restore The Mount, the Berkshires estate of Edith Wharton, and to establish it as a cultural and educational center. EWR dedicates The Mount to the study and promotion of Edith Wharton's work in literature, gardening and the design arts and to the recognition and celebration of women of achievement." http://www.edithwharton.org/
Chronology, Life overview, List of Works, Picture Gallery, Biographical sources, Critical sources, and links.Hudson Valley Poets
John Ashbery is the author of twenty books of poetry, and is currently the Charles P. Stevenson, Jr., Professor of Languages and Literature at Bard College.
Robert Kelly has authored over 60 books of verse and prose, including Scorpions(1967), Kill the Messenger (1985), and Cat Scratch Fever(1990).
"Tad Richards has written over twenty novels, screenplays and nonfiction books. His poetry has appeared in magazines and anthologies, and his songs have been recorded by a number of artists. He has been with the Marist English Department for well over a decade and is president and artistic director of Opus 40, in Saugerties, NY." http://www.marist.edu/humanities/english/tad.html This link is to Tad's web site. http://pages.prodigy.net/tadrichards/
Ed Sanders, now living in Woodstock, achieved fame in the countercultural world of the 1960s as poet, magazine founder, and leading force of the Fugs. His poetry volumes include Investigative Poetry (1975), Chechov (1995), 1968: A History in Verse, and Thirsting for Peace in a Raging Century, Selected Poems 1961-1985. http://www.albany.edu/writers-inst/sanders.html
James Fenimore Cooper
Complete novels: "Autobiography of a Pocket-Handkerchief", "Imagination and Heart", "The Last of The Mohicans", "The Pioneers", "The Prairie". Available to read online.
Complete novels, short stories, and poems available to read online.
Complete novels: "Age of Innocence", "Bunner Sisters", "Summer", "The Glimpse of the Moon", and "The Touchstone". Available online from www.pagebypage.com.
The complete novel, "The Age Of Innocence", available from bartleby.com.
Select from the following:Books by or about Washington Irving Books by or about John Burroughs
Select from the following:
Slavery in the ValleySlavery in the Valley
Native American History
Children and Education
Corridor of Commerce - travel & industry
History and Commerce of Forestry
"The Society of Negroes Unsettled;" The History of Slavery in New Paltz, by Eric J. Roth
Proceedings from the Symposium, "Buried Away: Finding & Using African-American History in the Hudson Valley"
Proceedings from the Symposium, "Buried Away: Finding & Using African-American History in the Hudson Valley" held at the Huguenot Historical Society, New Paltz, NY on November 3, 2001. This all-day symposium on African-American history in the Mid-Hudson Valley was co-sponsored by the Huguenot Historical Society, the African-American Research Committee of the Town of New Paltz, and the Lower Hudson Conference. The program presented lectures by speakers from multiple disciplines, including archival research, cemetery and community history, archeological and geophysics, education, and museum studies. The Symposium reflected the Hudson Valley's coming to terms with the fact of slavery in our past, and how to integrate and use this knowledge in our schools, libraries, museums, local governments, and institutions.
This website provides sources that are available at the Huguenot Historical Society Library in New Paltz. All of these sources pertain to African-Americans.
Harriet Tubman, a fugitive slave who personally escorted over 300 slaves to freedom, was known for thinking her way through perilous situations. Her ingenuity is illustrated in an incident that occurred in 1860 in Troy, New York, in which she set her mind to setting free a fugitive who had been captured and was being held at the office of the United States Commissioner. The following excerpt was taken from Harriet Tubman, The Moses of Her People. The story was told to the book's author, Sarah Bradford, in an interview with Harriet Tubman.
"This site is dedicated to telling the story of the Underground Railroad (UGR) in the New York State Capital Region, and identifying some resources which might be used to further study the UGR."
"Created in 2006, MHAHP brings together researchers, educators, civic leaders, and interested community members. Our goals are: * to conduct and synthesize research on the history of antislavery in the Mid-Hudson Valley, with special emphasis on the Underground Railroad; * to interpret this history and to share these interpretations with a wide array of residents and visitors in our area, with particular attention to students and youth; * to place local histories of slavery and antislavery in the Mid-Hudson Valley in the broader contexts of racial slavery in the New World; the African-American experience after Emancipation; and antislavery legacies today, including the impact of this historic grassroots movement on subsequent struggles for racial and social justice."
This site, run by the National Park Service, features historical documents, profiles of key people in the Underground Railroad movement, a guide to stops on the railroad, and research reports.Huguenot History
The Huguenot Cross is the ancient symbol of the recognition among the French Protestants, who in the 16th century were given the name of Huguenots originally a nickname, it became a name of honor among French Protestants in the days of suffering and persecution They wore the Huguenot Cross as sign of their evangelical faith.
On May 26, 1677, twelve Huguenots purchased almost 40,000 acres of land from the Esopus tribe along the Wallkill River and were given a legal grant to the land by Governor Edmund Andros the following September. In the spring of 1678, these Huguenots and their families took possession of the land as patentees (meaning they held a legal patent to the land) and settled the town of New Paltz, naming it after Die Pfalz, the region of Germany where they had formerly resided.
The town of New Paltz is situated in the southeastern section of the county, and is bounded as follows: on the north by the towns of Rosendale and Esopus, on the south by the towns of Gardiner and Plattekill, on the east by the towns of Rochester and Marbletown. It is irregular in outline, and has a farm area of 19, 392 acres. The population of the town, as given in the census of 1870, is 2,465.
This site lists books that are available in the Huguenot Historical Society Library in New Paltz. These books are all resources related to Huguenot History.
"The Early New Paltz Collection: Selected Digitized Manuscripts from the Huguenot Historical Society Archives 1672-1750 displays images of archival documents relating to the early development of the town of New Paltz, NY, settled by Huguenot immigrants from northern France in 1678."Native American History
When twelve Huguenot refugees from Northern France purchased a large tract of land from the Esopus Indians on May 26, 1677, they founded a settlement that they knew would be vulnerable to Indian attack because of its great distance from other white settlements. The settlers were well beyond the range where they could be easily protected by the English forces stationed at Kingston, and for at least the next fifteen years, had no physical refuge other than the simple dwellings in which they lived. It wasn't until 1705 that the New Paltz settlers had a defensible redoubt to which they could retreat if the natives did decide to attack. Living in such vulnerability, it was imperative that the Huguenots forge peaceful relations with the local tribesmen. The people of New Paltz appear to have been successful in this mission, as there is no record of any Indian uprising against them, and only a handful of sources suggest that there were even tensions between the two groups.
This website provides sources that are available at the Huguenot Historical Society Library in New Paltz. All of these sources deal with Native American History.Architectural History
During the summer of 2000, it came to the attention of SUNY New Paltz Professor Joe Diamond that there might have been an additional house on Huguenot Street, at one time owned by the Elting family, located near the Abraham Hasbrouck House. This information was derived from the 1790 Federal census which indicated that Ezekiel Elting (1763-1842) resided between his father Roeloff J. Elting (1737-1795) (in the Bevier-Elting House) and Isaias Hasbrouck (in the Abraham Hasbrouck House). On the last day of Dr. Diamond's 2000 Field School, portions of a foundation were found in just that location. Since it was the last day of the season, further investigation was postponed until 2001. In August 2001, the boundaries of the original structure were discovered. The foundations indicate that the house was approximately 37' x 17.5', indicating that it probably consisted of two rooms. As of 1798, the house was no longer in existence, and Dr. Diamond theorizes that the building was "robbed," meaning that the stones were taken away to be used for other purposes. Through an analysis of estate and legal papers, a partial history of the house and lot has been developed.
Currently on exhibit in the Howard Hasbrouck Grimm Gallery are architectural elements from the early houses on Huguenot Street. Early twentieth-century homeowners probably originally discovered most of these items, including fragments of doors, hinges, floorboards, and other materials, during remodeling or repair efforts. The examples were then stowed away in attics or basements and later salvaged by the Society as important historic material. Many of these objects retain vestiges of early paint and original wrought iron hardware. Most examples are well crafted, exhibiting the construction skills of their builders. Considered as a group, these architectural pieces will inform restoration projects conducted by the Society in the future and help us gain a better understanding of construction techniques used in the 17th and early 18th centuries.
This report was compiled as part of the process of the Locust Lawn Landscape Study and Master Plan conducted in 2001 and 2002.
This website provides sources that are available at the Huguenot Historical Society Library. All of these sources deal with architecture history.
Montgomery Place is best known as an architectural landmark designed by Alexander Jackson Davis and a landscape influenced by the great Andrew Jackson Downing. In 1775 General Richard Montgomery (1738-1775) was killed in the battle for Quebec and became the first hero of the American Revolution. His wife Janet Livingston Montgomery (1743-1828), at home on her place near Rhinebeck, became a revered widow, a status she cultivated for half a century.
Architectural style is often an important key to understanding how a community or neighborhood has developed over time. During the 19th century, when many of the County's residences were built, most architectural styles in use were first developed in the prosperous mercantile cities of this country or in Europe. As styles took hold in developing areas and larger cities such as Albany, local architects and master builders began incorporating characteristic features into the design of their buildings.
The engineering of the Hudson - the physical manipulation of natural space - coincides with an increase in the rate of production of certain forms of representation of the same space. Both processes, in turn, are associated with the rise of industrial capitalism in the northeast. A number of cultural anthropologists have looked at the relationships between groups and their physical surroundings, and at the way these physical surroundings are viewed and symbolised (Hirsch and O'Hanlon 1995). Their notion of landscape accords equal value to the actual terrain as to the experiences that individuals may have of this terrain, including the imaginative construction of texts and graphic images. In our own study of the Hudson River landscape, we rely on data of the latter sort to augment our knowledge of the physical landscape. Additionally, our research has been directed to understanding not only representations, but the social worlds from which these representations emerge, and within which they are distributed and experienced.Children and Education
This paper presents examples of some familiar and some unfamiliar business and accounting concepts as they were taught in the early-nineteenth century to help accounting students and faculty members to gain further insight into how today's practices evolved.
The extracts displayed come from ciphering books in the HHS Archives collection. Because students learning disciplines as varied as mathematics, handwriting, spelling and surveying used them, ciphering books are an excellent source for documenting the early history of education.Estates
Sunnyside stands on the banks of the Hudson River in Tarrytown, New York, and was purchased by Washington Irving in 1835 for $1,800. The house was originally a two-room Dutch farm house, and its earlier colonial history appealed to Irving. However, the farm house was too small to accommodate his large extended family. Irving also wanted to create a home that reflected his own ideas about beauty. Over the next fifteen years, with the help of an artist friend George Harvey, Irving redesigned and added to the original house. The end result of their efforts is the Sunnyside that exists today, which includes many examples of Irving's interests and findings from his travels.
"Staatsburgh, is a New York State Historic Site located within the boundaries of Mills-Norrie State Park. It is an elegant example of the great estates built by America's financial and industrial leaders during the Gilded Age."Historic People
Samuel Finley Breese Morse was born on April 27, 1791, in Charlestown, just outside of Boston, Massachusetts. He was the son of Jedidiah Morse, a pastor who was as well known for his geography as Noah Webster, a friend of the family, was known for his dictionaries.
Franklin D. Roosevelt was born in Hyde Park, New York on January 30, 1882, the son of James Roosevelt and Sara Delano Roosevelt. His parents and private tutors provided him with almost all his formative education. He attended Groton (1896-1900), a prestigious preparatory school in Massachusetts, and received a BA degree in history from Harvard in only three years (1900-03). Roosevelt next studied law at New York's Columbia University. When he passed the bar examination in 1907, he left school without taking a degree. For the next three years he practiced law with a prominent New York City law firm. He entered politics in 1910 and was elected to the New York State Senate as a Democrat from his traditionally Republican home district.
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt was born in New York City on October 11, 1884. Her father was Elliott Roosevelt, President Theodore Roosevelt's younger brother and her mother was Anna Hall, a descendent of the Livingstons, a distinguished New York family. Both her parents died when she was a child, her mother in 1892, and her father in 1894. After her mother's death, Eleanor lived with her grandmother, Mrs. Valentine G. Hall, in Tivoli, New York. She was educated by private tutors until age 15, when she was sent to Allenswood, a school for girls in England, whose headmistress, Mademoiselle Marie Souvestre, had a great influence on her education and thinking. At age 18, Eleanor Roosevelt returned to New York where she resided with cousins. During that time she became involved in social service work, joined the Junior League and taught at the Rivington street Settlement House.
It was a cold snowy February morning when Kate Mullaney left her home at 34 North 2nd Street in Troy, New York, waved goodbye to her widowed mother, Bridget, her older sister Mary, her two younger sisters and her brother Frank to walk to her job at the laundry. Kate and Mary had been born in Ireland and immigrated to America with their parents. After the death of their father, and because of their mother's ill health they decided that Mary would stay home to care for the family and Kate would become the breadwinner.
The Akin family of which Honorable Albert J. is now (1882) the oldest representative member, has always been one of the most important in Dutchess County. Of Scotch origin and Quaker lineage, the second American representative, left new England for its persecutions and settled upon Quaker Hill in the town of Pawling, and there his descendants have made a continued stand for several generations. Sectarian persecutions, from which the New England Quakers were sufferers, added largely to the independent and intelligent population of Dutchess County, but it received no more conspicuous advantage from any source than from the arrival of this Akin refugee.
This ancient family, which is numerously represented in Dutchess County, is of Norman-French origin, but more directly of English descent. It is said that the lineage of its present younger members can be traced back through eleven generations, with all the names and most of the important dates (birth, deaths, and marriages) ascertained and reliable. Tristram Coffyn, the pioneer and ancestor of the American branch, came from Devonshire, England, in 1642, and located in Massachusetts. In 1660 he removed to the island of Nantucket, of which he was one of the first owners and settlers and where he died in 1681. In Aug, 1881, two hundred years after his death, large numbers of his descendants, coming from many of our states and territories and from foreign lands, journeyed to Nantucket, and there held a grand memorial re-union, the exercises lasting for three successive days. The following extract from an oration delivered upon that occasion by Tristram Coffin of Poughkeepsie, contains some interesting information in regard to the branch of the family transplanted to this county.
To anyone who has ever known Mr. Storm this very expressive and life like engraving will readily recall him to memory. Notwithstanding his apparent freshness and life he is believed to be, to-day, the oldest male representative of the Storm family in Dutchess County. His early and matured manhood were spent upon lands belonging to one of the old homesteads of the Storm family in East Fishkill, where his younger son, William J. Storm now resides. The site of this old homestead still remains surrounded with trees that lift themselves toward the sunlight and hide in their branches the beautiful outlines of Wiccopee, and the Beacon heights of the Fishkill mountains, or Highlands, as their soft tracings of shadow and outline are spread out in the near and distant view until lost in the valley of the Hudson.
Thomas Taber was a native of Rhode Island and settled in the town of Dover in 1760, on a tract of land which has been occupied by his descendants to the present time. William, the son of Jeremiah, and grandsons of Thomas Taber, was born December 10, 1796 and died in January 1863. In October 1822, he was united in marriage with Eliza Sherman, who died February 5, 1841. To them were born four children of whom two are now living viz.:--Wm. Henry, born May 4, 1825, and Walter F., born October 29, 1830.
I was born in Pleasant Valley, Duchess County, New York, September 30, 1821. My parents were Abraham Flagler and Sarah Thorne. My father was a farmer, a quiet, sincere, Godly man, an elder in the Presbyterian Church and during the family life here in Pleasant Valley, active in church work, going out holding cottage prayer meetings at the neighboring homes. He had a good voice, led the singing in church, and taught his children to sing. He was of Dutch descent; his father, Zecheriah Flagler, being one of two sons, (Simon and Zecheriah) of a family who emigrated from Holland to Duchess County, New York, when Zecheriah was but four years old.
The mission of this organization is to raise funds to help the Park Service restore and preserve Val-Kill and also to enhance the visitor experience through film, exhibits and other materials.
The site includes a few of the old cemeteries located in Dutchess County. Most of the listings are taken from Poucher's "Old Gravestones in Dutchess County" which does not have listings for the more modern cemeteries.Miscellaneous
Welcome to the Web Site of the Mohawk & Hudson Chapter of the National Railway Historical Society! The chapter is based in Albany, N.Y., the railroad crossroads of the northeast, and takes its name from the Mohawk & Hudson Rail Road. The Mohawk & Hudson was one of the first railroads in the United States: it was chartered in 1826 and ran from Albany to Schnectady.
This link provides the viewer with links to Dutchess County Towns and their histories including Fishkill Landing and Village, Groveville, Johnsville, Matteawan, Pawling, Poughkeepsie, Quaker Hill, and Union Vale.
the first settlers came by way of the Hudson, near which the first settlements were begun. Settlements slowly progressed in the interior, along the streams, which were the first, and, for some years, almost the only highways in the country. Gradually they diverged from these into forests, unbroken, except by the small rude clearings made by the Indians, following the well-worn trails left by the latter, and from these branched off into routes indicated by blazed trees, which were the forest guide boards, and by their aid the forests were traversed from one locality to another. But these human denizens could not prosper in their isolated settlements; they must needs open communication with each other and to points affording a market for their surplus products; to this end roads were indispensable and of the first importance.
The Palisades Interstate Park Commission oversees Fort Lee Historic Park, Fort Montgomery, Knox's Headquarters, New Windsor Cantonment, Senate House, Stony Point Battlefield, and Washington's Headquarters.
The Hudson River Valley National Heritage Area's official website provides information on approximately 90 Hudson River Valley Heritage Sites - you can view them by region and interest.
This directory is provided by the Middletown Thrall Library and contains numerous links covering a wide variety of information about Hudson Valley History.
"The HRH is a nonprofit membership organization committed to preserving the unique character of the Mid-Hudson Valley's historic architecture, rural landscapes and scenic viewsheds through advocacy and education."
A sampling of items that help to tell the story of the people, business, farms, industries, natural history of the greater Chester, Orange County, New York community.
"The Consortium of Rhinebeck History is a group of organizations whose archives contain collections relating to Rhinebeck history. It is dedicated to the preservation and care of the various collections and to creating an index of the collections to promote public accessibility."
"The Orangetown Museum's Springsteen Collection is a collection of black and white photographs taken by George W. Springsteen in and around the Town of Orangetown c.1910 - 1920."
"The collection makes available all of the photographs in the Archives Files collection, which provide visual documentation of Raymond Avenue, Vassar Lake, college buildings and buildings relating to Matthew Vassar's family, as well as class groups, faculty, presidents, students, trustees, and Matthew Vassar and his relatives."
"These photographs of the Maverick Festivals are representative of the collection of historical materials held by the Woodstock Public Library District."
"The photographs document the history of higher education in the town of New Paltz, from the establishment of the first New Paltz Academy in 1828, to the present State University of New York at New Paltz."
"This collection is intended as a broad selection of materials from the College Archive that locates Bard within the social, cultural, and intellectual history of the Hudson Valley."
"The Library Association of Rockland County (LARC) is an organization of library-oriented individuals and groups representing 17 public libraries of Rockland County, New York. Its mission is to promote library growth, cooperation and development in Rockland County."
Oakwood Cemetery is one of America's larger rural cemeteries, overlooking 100 miles of the Hudson Valley and the heart of Troy in upstate New York. The Troy Cemetery Association, Inc. is charged with preserving and maintaining hundreds of acres, 10-12 miles of roads nearly 60,000 gravesites, as well as the historic Gardner Earl Memorial Chapel and Crematorium, the Queen Anne Victorian Lower Gatehouse and the Upper Gatehouse.Corridor of Commerce - travel & industry
This is a site dedicated to the preservation and interpretation of the remaining Hudson River lighthouses between Manhattan and Albany. The Coalition offers information on each house, operating hours, contacts, and a map to help you put it all together.
"The West Point Foundry, which operated from 1817 until 1911, was one of the most innovative and productive industrial facilities in the nation at the dawn of the Industrial Revolution. The Foundry's ruins are of unquestionable historic significance. Scenic Hudson's 87-acre site of the former West Point Foundry in the Village of Cold Spring lies in the heart of the majestic Hudson Highlands and opposite West Point Military Academy, 55 miles upriver from Manhattan."
Now part of Copake Falls State Park, the old Iron works shop and the ruins of its blast furnace remain. For additional images, see the Hillsdale Public Library's on-line photo gallery of picture postcards
Founded in 1972, the Hudson Mohawk Industrial Gateway helps the communities in the Capital District of New York to celebrate, to preserve, and to profit from its historic industrial legacy. It does so through education, preservation, advocacy, and development programs.
An online exhibit from the Hudson River Maritime Museum in Kingston discussing the shipping history of the Rondout district.
During the nineteenth century, a combination of the forces of geography and economics were to make the mid-Hudson Village of Rondout (later to become part of the City of Kingston) the principal center of commercial activity between New York and Albany.
This paper is part of a larger investigation of 19th century Hudson River landscape transformations associated with the development of industrial capitalism. As a result of the opening of the Erie Canal and associated engineering efforts which altered the river's morphology, the Hudson had become, by the middle of the 19th century, a corridor for the transportation of goods into the port of New York. In addition, these improvements allowed coal, machinery and building materials to be supplied to new industrial facilities established along the River. One of the Hudson's first industries was the natural ice industry.
Castleton Island State Park is comprised of a number of islands in the mid/upper Hudson. These island have a rich pre/historic legacy including agriculture and ice-houses.
Includes: Barges, Railroads and Bridges A Short History of the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company, 1828-1898; by Paula Valentine, as well as extensive links to museums and related organizations.
Located in Ulster County, this museum offers Teacher resources and field trips as well as an extensive research library and light hikes along the old canal and locks in the Village. The Museum also issues permits to visit the ruins of High Falls' Roebling Aqueduct.
Located in the D&H Canal Park, along the Neversink River in Cuddebackville, Orange County. They offer rides aboard a working replica canal barge, an educational program on the Native American Lenape, a research library, and more.
Hudson Valley Railroad Society The Hudson Valley Railroad society is a nonprofit organization that is located at the Hyde Park Railroad Station. Its website contains a multitude of links, information about the society and a list of events it is involved with.
The Taconic State Parkway web site gives a large historical overview and contains links and pictures of the parkway.
The mission of the New York State Bridge Authority is to maintain and operate the vehicle crossings of the Hudson River entrusted to its jurisdiction for the economic and social benefit of the people of the state. The website contains pages on history as well as a photo gallery.
The Palisades Interstate Parkway was completed in 1958, and provides a scenic 42-mile ride from the George Washington Bridge to Bear Mountain. Its web site gives a large historical overview and contains links and pictures of the parkway.
Walkway Over the Hudson is a not for profit corporation dedicated to preserving the historic Poughkeepsie Highland Railroad Bridge and turning it into a park. Its website contains historical information, up to date news, and pictures throughout.
Of the many Hudson River steamboat lines, the Hudson River Day Line was the most prominent and dependable. Their steamboats were known for elegance and speed, and provided the most enjoyable way to travel the Hudson River.
Sailor Twain - or The Mermaid in the Hudson, a serial webcomic
Peppered with recognizable locations along the river and the blog’s colorful history notes, the story calls out to readers from Tarrytown, Dobbs Ferry, Peekskill, Rhinebeck, Poughkeepsie and elsewhere from Manhattan to Albany—some of whom leave comments furthering the historical research. “Sailor Twain” is, at least in part, a love-letter to the Hudson, and it argues convincingly for its place as one of the most romantic rivers in the world.
Ice boating on the Hudson River has finished one of the most remarkable seasons in recent memory. The cold weather created a thick and beautiful ice sheet from Rhinecliff to Astor Point, near Barrytown, an expanse of about 5 miles of smooth ice perfect for ice boating. 'Hard water' sailing continued throughout February and into March.
Located in Haverstraw, New York is a museum dedicated to preserving the memories of an era gone by. The mission of the museum is to collect, preserve, research and exhibit materials and cultures of the brick making industry within the Hudson River Valley.
The background for this webpage is from bricks found in the Hudson River area of New York State. where hundreds of brick-making factories existed from the late 1700s into the 1940s.
This link discusses the West Point Foundry. It touches upon the foundry's history and discusses archaeological research done on location.
This provides a small biography about Robert Parrott. He was in charge of the West Point Foundry during the Civil War and created a cannon known as the Parrott gun which is credited with helping the Union win the war.
This links to the New York State Library and the documents they have regarding the Sterling Ironworks.
Troy's industrial history is housed in the former office of the Burden Iron Works. The museum is operated by the Hudson Mohawk Industrial Gateway, which also maintains downtown Troy-s RiverSpark Visitor Center (where there are additional exhibits about the city's history) and sponsors a regular series of tours, the most popular of which focuses on Troy's large concentration of Tiffany windows. Self-guided walking tours of the city's large collection of 19th-century buildings are also available there.
Troy's RiverSpark Visitor Center is the place to launch any visit to downtown Troy, to the greater Troy area, or to the entire Hudson-Mohawk Heritage Area . You will learn how abundant water for transportation and industrial power helped propel the region to international fame during the nineteenth century. Visitor Center staff will show you where you can visit the plentiful landmarks from that industrial heyday and guide you to Troy's unique shops, excellent restaurants, renowned cultural attractions, and impressive historic architecture. They will advise you about the numerous events that take place in greater Troy every week.History and Commerce of Forestry
This link brings you to an article about the history of the Hudson. Among the piece, there is a section on tanneries and Zaddock Pratt, owner of one of the largest tanneries. It also briefly discusses how the Catskills were overused, and Hemlocks began to disappear.Medical History
Dr. Osborn (1722-1782) is of the Fishkill Depot, and is the only physician able to be researched in our local history. He is also the only historical physician not in the administration under George Washington's management. Dr. Osborn is our only source of local heritage information pertaining to the war.
Trained in Edinburgh as a child, Lt-Gov Colden became a philosopher, scientist, and engineer. Plans are currently being put in place to make his home a historical landmark.
Dr. Ricketson was the first Quaker doctor in our region.
Some of the first "wilderness settlers", the Moravian people converted some of the native Mahican Indians to Christianity and help create a unique medical philosophy.
Select from the following:
National Organizations-GovernmentalNational Organizations-Governmental
Parks - Ulster County
Regional Educational Organizations
The homepage for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
"The International POPs Elimination Network is a global network of public interest non-governmental organizations united in support of a common POPs Elimination Platform, this is their page on PCB's in the Hudson River."
The Natural Resources Defence Council's page on the Hudson River.
"The United States Geological Survey serves the Nation as an independent fact-finding agency that collects, monitors, analyzes, and provides scientific understanding about natural resource conditions, issues, and problems."
"The heart of the American Heritage Rivers initiative is locally driven and designed solutions. The federal role is confined to fostering community empowerment, while providing focused attention and resources to help river communities restore their environment, revitalize their economy, renew their culture and preserve their history."National Organizations-Nonprofits
"Earthjustice is a non-profit public interest law firm dedicated to protecting the magnificent places, natural resources, and wildlife of this earth and to defending the right of all people to a healthy environment."
"The purpose of this site is to generate interest in John Burroughs and to encourage new research on his published works."
The American Heritage Rivers Alliance (AHRA) is a 501(c)(3) organization formed to support the American Heritage Rivers Initiative, which was established by Executive Order in 1997 to promote the environmental restoration, economic development, and preservation of cultural and historical heritage of America's rivers and their communities.State Organizations-Governmental
"The homepage for the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation provides information about New York's natural resources, the quality of our environment and great places to enjoy the outdoors."
"New York State's Hudson River Home Page with links to government agencies and programs concerned with the Hudson's welfare, plus a Hudson River Program Summary to help you find the programs of special interest."
The New York State Hudson River Valley Greenway Homepage.State Organizations-Nonprofit
In April 2012, Pace University hosted a community forum on Hydrofracking; you can download the podcast here for free.
"The tree-ring lab, of Columbia University, has studied forested ecosystems in the Hudson Valley (HV) for more than 25 years."
"The non-profit organization Hudson River Sloop Clearwater was created to defend and restore the Hudson River, one of the great and historic rivers of this nation."
"Research at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory has delved into a wide range of river issues - from sediment transport to PCB contamination to carbon and nutrient cycles to the myriad effects of global climate change."
"Environmental Advocates of New York serves the people of New York as an effective and aggressive watchdog and advocate on virtually every important state environmental issue."
"Historic Hudson Valley's mission is to preserve the culture, landscape and history of the Hudson River Valley, and to present this heritage to the public through educational outreach, daily programming at historic properties, and special events."
A dynamic website covering the process of filming the first wildlife documentary on the Hudson River and the valley surrounding it, including a blog and video updates.
"The Hudson River Estuary Program is a unique regional partnership designed to protect, conserve, restore, and enhance the Hudson River estuary. "
"The Hudson River Environmental Society (HRES) is a nonprofit organization that fosters research on the Hudson River environment and related coastal areas, provides a forum for communication and cooperation among researchers, and makes the results of environmental research available to concerned citizens and public officials."
"The mission of the Hudson River Foundation (HRF) is to make science integral to decision-making with regard to the Hudson River and its watershed and to support competent stewardship of this extraordinary resource."
"The Hudson Valley Sustainable Communities Network is a network of individuals and organizations, from the New York City border to the headwaters of the Hudson, working creatively to build more sustainable cities, towns, neighborhoods and rural communities."
Hudson Valley Traveler provides information on traffic and construction conditions, and weather conditions including Ozone reports.
Hudsonia is a not-for-profit organization, for research, public education, and technical assistance in the environmental sciences.
"Cornell Cooperative Extension is a key outreach system of Cornell University with a strong public mission and an extensive local presence that is responsive to needs in New York communities. The Cornell Cooperative Extension educational system enables people to improve their lives and communities through partnerships that put experience and research knowledge to work."
This is the New York State Comprehensive Research Libraries page of Science Links.
"Riverkeeper is an independent, member-supported environmental organization founded on the premise that citizens themselves must roll up their sleeves to defend our waterways."
"SCA Hudson Valley offers professional-level conservation service opportunities within New York State Parks, Historic Sites, and Department of Environmental Conservation sites throughout the Hudson Valley region."
"Scenic Hudson, Inc. is a nonprofit environmental organization and land trust dedicated to protecting and enhancing the scenic, natural, historic, agricultural and recreational treasures of the Hudson River and its valley."
In September 1962, the Consolidated Edison Company announced plans to build a pumped storage facility, the largest of its kind in the world, at Storm King Mountain near Cornwall, New York. The initial application for license to construct the plant was filed with the Federal Power Commission in January 1963. On November 8, 1963, a small group of concerned citizens met at the home of Carl Carmer and formed the Scenic Hudson Preservation Conference to fight the pumped storage project on the grounds that it posed a threat to the Cornwall water supply and Hudson River fisheries as well as to scenic and historic Storm King Mountain. The Scenic Hudson Decision, as the case is called in law books, launched the modern environmental movement. The records of this case are archived at the Marist College Library.
The Scenic Hudson Collection documents the landmark environmental law case known as the Scenic Hudson Decision or the Storm King Case (1963 - 1981).
The Saunders Papers document the contributions of Alexander Saunders to the Storm King Case (1962 - 1966).
The Seymour Papers document the contributions of Senator & Mrs. Whitney N. Seymour Jr. to the Storm King Case (1962-1978).
The John Grim Collection consists of the findings of Northeast Biologists, Inc., on the Hudson River and it's fisheries between the years of 1965 and 1968.
"The Hudson Valley Harvest Ambassador Program recruits and trains urban and suburban volunteers to provide agricultural education for consumers to ensure wise decisions are made regarding Hudson Valley agriculture and local food systems."
"Friends..." work with all of the Palisades Interstate Park Commision's parks and historic sites. This is an online tour of their history and current offerings.
On-line library and portal listing resources which are helpful in arriving at information pertaining to environmental science.
"The Hudson River Watertrail Association is a coalition of small boaters, primarily human and wind powered, who are actively interested in the Hudson River as a treasure of natural and human history."
“ Teatown Lake Reservation is a nonprofit, environmental education center and nature preserve impacting 20,000 adults and children through its environmental education programs each year. Teatown manages 1,000 acres of land and 15 miles of hiking trails and is home to birds of prey and native animal habitats. Teatown organizes community programs and special events such as Teatown’s Hudson River EagleFest. Teatown's Nature Center is open daily, 9am-5pm. Hiking trails are open daily dawn-dusk. Teatown Lake Reservation’s mission is to inspire our community to lifelong environmental stewardship.”
The mission of the Open Space Institute is to protect scenic, natural and historic landscapes to ensure public enjoyment, conserve habitats and sustain community character. OSI achieves its goals through land acquisition, conservation easements, special loan programs, and creative partnerships.Parks - Ulster County Kids' Links
"Challenger Center uses students' natural enthusiasm for space to create innovative learning experiences for imaginative young minds."
"The non-profit organization Hudson River Sloop Clearwater was created to defend and restore the Hudson River, one of the great and historic rivers of this nation." This is their page on hands-on educational offerings.
"Three hundred and fifteen miles of water provides a home and vital resources for creatures ranging from the microscopic phytoplankton to the seven-foot-long Atlantic sturgeon." This is a Marist College Summer Scholars page on the biodiversity of the Hudson River.
The mission of the Mid-Hudson Childrens' Museum is "to awaken children's intellectual curiosity, stir their imagination, give children the joy of exploration and discovery, and inspire creative approaches to problem solving through interactive educational experiences where all children and families can play, learn, and grow together. "Regional Educational Organizations
Each year, Clearwater accommodates nearly 13,000 children and adults for education sails that teach history, biology, and environmental science and navigation along the Hudson River, New York Harbor and Long Island Sound. Thousands more are reached through on-land classroom visits, field programs and public exhibits.
The Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies combines research and education in fulfillment of its scientific mission. Central to the Institute's mission is the creation, dissemination, and application of knowledge about ecological systems. A society with a basic understanding of ecological systems and an appreciation of their role in the quality of human life is essential if natural areas are to be sustained.
Columbia-Greene Community College is home to a natural history museum with 2000 bird skin specimens, 1400 egg sets with over 5000 eggs, 3000 vascular plant herbarium specimens, and 500 bryophyte specimens all primarily collected in the Columbia and Greene Counties of New York State.
The Consortium pledges a new era of cooperation among its regional colleges and universities and will organize the special skills and talents of faculty from various institutions. By channeling this extraordinary bank of intellect, educational talent and natural activism into innovative education and public service, the Consortium will further advance knowledge and understanding of the Hudson River Valley and beyond. Programs of the Consortium will utilize the Hudson Valley as an extended laboratory and classroom for policy analysis, multi-institutional field programs, teacher training for elementary and high schools levels, interdisciplinary research collaborations, and cooperative regional studies.
The mission of this group is to promote advocacy and protection to the current Catskill forests.
This site is useful for its links to information on the history of the Catskills. It currently has a link to a PDF version of an issue of the "Conservationist" which celebrates 100 years of the Catskill region preserve.The Adirondacks
The site ties in the history of America and logging industry into the depletion of forests and the development of the Adirondack park.
This site is good in that it explains the history of the Adirondack park. It explains how the park was established, and discusses characteristics of the area that make it unique.Agriculture
This site gives a good history of wine making in the Hudson River Valley. It also highlights some individual wineries and includes links to a list of wineries in the area.
This site provides information on the history of the Warwick winery specifically. It has a recent history, but shows how wineries have become popular in recent years
is located online. It includes various aspects of the history of wine. Many sections of the book include parts on New York State and the Hudson Valley specifically.
This site discusses various aspects of the wine industry, including trends in production, issues facing growers, and sales production of the industry.